“not until 2016, at the earliest, will we know the full number of those likely to develop serious medical conditions.” former Secretary-General Kofi Annan http://www.un.org/ha/chernobyl/docs/sgsm7778.htm
The Chernobyl Core was 190 tons of Uranium Dioxide UO².
Each Kg consisted of 2,4 g of Plutonium 239. To make the reactor work. This is the situation in each reactor worldwide. To get it run, beginning of life fuel needs this.
For Chernobyl it makes 450 Kg Pu239 all together in both halves of the Core.
Ca. 250 Kg Pu239 in normal reactors. With smaller cores.
The core was split in two halves, together 10 m length.
An electromechanical experiment was started.
Purpose: Could a tripped generator maintain the electrical feed to the main circulation pumps during generator coast down?
Reactivity was reduced.
Security System was blocked, so was the >automatic< scram.
Both turbo generators were shut down.
The behaviour of Chernobyl is similiar to Fast Breeder Reactors (Sodium / lead cooled), also in terms of void coefficient.
The loss of pumping power induced by the experiment caused a rapid fail in pressure, so the water began to boil, at the bottom of the reactor and even at the inlet of the water! The reactor was unstable.
The crew pushed the button of the Emergency Protection System:
The water lies between the moderator (graphite) and the fuel. It captures thermal neutrons. It is more like a neutron shield than an additional moderator. The energy once stored in the fuel was transferred to the coolant.
It continued to boil and saturate and steam and water met very hot surfaces:
So the first explosion occurred and set the reactor dry – this can be described as steam / hydrogen explosion, BUT that was not was the reactor destroyed. Not, what the reactor lid has thrown aside, not what destroyed the reactor hall.
The first explosion had an energy of 200 Gigajoules. All water was expelled from the reactor. All fuel channels became dry. And Water was pushed back into the inlet and the steam drum seperators.
A dry reactor heats up 100°C every 0,1 seconds.
The Doppler Effect was saturated. Phase transition was faster than the heating. NO MELTDOWN.
You would need “only” 50 Gigajoules to boil all that water.
Xenon build up. The reactor poisoned itself. But that was not the main cause for the next events:
The Void Coefficient increased. More than 5 $. This is higher than the total antireactivity of the Doppler effect.
A final supercritical state was achieved – This is nothing else than a nuclear Explosion / reaction of the Reactor Type. This principle is known since the first graphite gas cooled reactors were build.
Fuel Disaggregation requires very high energy: More than 250 Gigajoules.
The crew pushed the Scram Button AZ5. Control rods moved it. They needed 10 seconds, which took much too long. Only a small number of them reached the core.
2 seconds later the Nuclear Explosion / Reaction occurred. This one was 1,000 Gigajoules = 1 Terrajoule. This is the equivalent of 200 – 300 Tons of TNT, or just the yield of a U.S. nuclear W54 warhead.
This nuclear warhead existed and was actually tested. It`s yield: 250 Tons TNT, or, in other words: 1,12 Terrajoule. Exactly the amount of Energy Chernobyl`s two explosions had (one setting the core dry, the other destroying it):
LINK of the 250 tons (0,25 kilotons TNT) Warhead: http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-26.html
The U.S. NUREG-1250 report, the official U.S. analyses says in Figure 4.3: 1,400 calories energy were deposited into each gram of reactor fuel UO². That is exactly the 1 Terrajoule.
The fuel was damaged. Each explosion took 1 second.
It included Shock Waves, Cladding rupture, Fuel fragmentation, Phase transition, and as an eye witness said, a blue flash.
If 65 % of the fuel is smeared that means the reactor is prompt supercritical = Nuclear explosion / reaction. This is called bigger than 1 $.
The total power of the reactor at the time of its destruction was 47,000 % over normal.
This all happened in 1 second.
Fast neutron reactions happen 1,000 times faster than any chemical or physical reaction.
A steam explosion was not possible anymore. At high temperatures steam ionizes into hydrogen and oxygen. Both do not explode at temperatures above 2,000 / 2,100°C
The phase transition Uranium dioxide core flew like a turbo jet engine into the air, ca. 20 – 30 m above the central hall and exploded in a nuclear explosion of the reactor type. The temperatures reached at this moment: 40,000°C.
But the Temperature of the Chernobyl nuclear explosion was 100,000 times lower (10,000,000%) than the nuclear explosion of the bomb type.
No water has enough thermal conductivity for that.
This exceeds every safety system human can design and build.
The not welded lid has a weight of 2,000 tons. It was superheated during the explosion and neutron activity. It was seen from the helicopter crew and IAEA as well as soviet officials misinterpreted it as fuel in melting process. Steel glows cherry red at Temperatures 770°C to 800°C and yellow at Temperatures 1,150°C to 1,250°C.
The paint is also still there. It survive a max. Temp. of 300°C.
The thermal observation showed no melting process and no graphite fire.
IAEA says 96% of the fuel is still in the reactor. But it is not.
In September 1986 126 tons of graphite and 26 tons of fuel were removed from roofs at Chernobyl plant site.
If much Boron is used in western reactors, similar over moderated situations can happen.
Western reactors avoid explosions, via cooking and steaming the reactor cores and letting the aerolized inventory fly through the safety relief valves (SRVs). It`s like a pressure cooker.
NUREG 1250 also speaks of “aerolized” fuel particles after phase transition, on page 6-7.
The industry simply avoids the term “nuclear explosion in a reactor” and simply calls it: “prompt critical excursion.” That`s all.
“The critical mass in a reactor (even on a pro nucler site): “After pushing the AZ-5 button the emergency protection system added, according to calculations, about a ß of positive reactivity and created a local critical mass in the lower part of the core – resulting in a sharp increase of power there (see Figure 3) and the coming into play of the positive power coefficient of reactivity. The power in the lower part of the core rose to the level at which the fuel exploded and got dispersed.” quote Anatoly Dyatlov, former deputy engineer for operations at Chernobyl: http://www.neimagazine.com/features/featurehow-it-was-an-operator-s-perspective/
Chernobyl needs no sarcophagus, not today and not in 1986, because it was and is EMPTY. The establishment of a sarcophagus was crazy, senseless and deadly – But right now, they build the 2nd one. A new Containment for a dangerous truth.
The liquidators have not liquidated Chernobyl. The liquidators have liquidated themselves.
800,000 worked in the area. On site, as doctors, workers… but they worked in the Chernobyl Core – which was scattered everywhere. In microparticles. This means: Soviet officials evacuated 130,000 civilans, but sent 800,000 into the irradiated areas!
The Reactor became empty, when the second explosion happened.
A nuclear one. What? Not possible? Sadly, it is. And it is known since the first reactor was build. A moderator / water is vital for each reactor, because it can become nuclear explosive.
The CORE data:
A DRY reactor heats up 100°C (180°F) evey 0,1 seconds! At the same time nuclear reactions take place, NEUTRONS – just below the speed of light. No chance for Reactor Emergency Systems:
Chernobyl irradiated the whole European Continent – even pro nuclear UNSCEAR clearly admits that (although their numbers are from the textbook):
Some say a quake caused the Chernobyl catastrophe. But is the quake maybe the result of the explosion – expressed as seismic data? Here is the seismis data from 1986, by soviet sources: http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr139/pdf/karpan.pdf
To understand the principle of the nuclear explosion of the reactor, and unmask probably the biggest lie in technological history of human history, just have a look at this:
– Chernobyl was a nuclear explosion
– No containment can keep such a explosion
– The weight of the reactor lid was 2,000 tons (NOT 1,000!) – important for energy calculation later below
– A containment would increase the yield of the explosion (pressure!)
– This principle is as old as the principle of man made nuclear fission:
From the book “History of the British nuclear industry” by Margaret Gowing, “Britain and Atomic Energy”, on page 382 the former U.S. water-cooled graphite reactor at Hanford is described: “To be built in view of the risks of an accident, the reactor is at an isolated location. Because water absorbs neutrons, and when the water flow is interrupted and the control rods do not occur immediately in action, the water evaporates in the cooling system and can no longer absorb the neutrons . These neutrons were therefore available to increase the fission rate in the reactor, which is super critical with power. The temperature rises, the fuel evaporated and the radioactivity is spreading widely. “
On page 385 we find the position:
“The gas cooling is to avoid the risk of severe supercritical state …”
What is supercritical?
The knowledge of the danger of an atomic explosion that can occur in a water-cooled graphite-gas reactor, is as old as the principle of the reactor itself.
Safety Assessment Principle 152 requires ‘The containment should adequately contain such radioactive matter as may be released into it as a result of any fault in the reactor.’ Clearly if nuclear explosions are possible a licence should not be granted. LAST PAGE: http://www.spokesmanbooks.com/Spokesman/PDF/91Gifford.pdf
Chernobyl was build by ROSATOM – the ones who build a new reactor in Chernobyl irradiated Belarus, the ones who helped Iran with their nuclear reactors. Chernobyl went critical 1st time 1984, 2 years before the explosions:
So, what happened at Chernobyl Reactor 4? First a small and short summary. Then a BIG one further below. Are you with me?
1) A very good summary with exact Energy Yields was made by: “Martinez Val, Jose M., Aragones, Jose M., Mingues, Emilio, Perlado, Jose M., Velarade, Guillermio. An Analysis of the Physical Causes of the Chernobyl Accident. Nuclear Technology. Vol. 90, June 1990: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/Artikel%20zu%20Tschernobyl%20in%20Nuclear%20Technology%20Vol%2090.pdf (this is the worldwide only exclusive link providing this file). Chernobyl’s 190,3 tons Core consisted of 450 Kg Plutonium 239.
This is also something the nuclear advocats don’t want you to know: 250 Kg Plutonium 239 are produced by each reactor. This is why they were invented: For Plutonium, NOT electricity. Chernobyl was primarily a military reactor. You could extract the Plutonium while the reactor was running. Because of the two halves of the Core. So there is much potential for supercriticality. EVERY reactor needs critical ingredients to “start” – it is in the BOL fuel, the “Beginning Of Life” Fuel. It starts with it. Chernobyl even with more. Give it a face: Nagasaki was “only” 6,2 Kg Plutonium. While every reactor has 250 Kg of it! Now, credit that!
2) In Chernobyl there were TWO Explosions. Number One set the reactor dry – with 200 Gigajoules Energy (0,2 Terrajoule), and then Core poisoned itself and heated it up 100°C every 0,1 seconds. The 2nd explosion reached 1,000 Gigajoules (1,0 Terrajoule) and led to destruction / phase transition of the fuel:
Other sources say: H. van Dam. says: “900 Gigajoules”: http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/55/11/003 still a good “housenumber”.
NRC official: http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0716/ML071690245.pdf
3) The Temperature reached more than 2,000°C degrees – reaching 47,000 % POWER!
4) Reaching 4,000 – 5,000°C these temperatures were no longer chemical, they were nuclear. Officials tell us: “Chernobyl was a hydrogen / steam explosion” – maybe the first one. But with the heating up, it became too hot for these kind of explosions. Don Arnot (below) said: At these temperatures steam ionizes and dissociates into the gases oxygen and hydrogen. These detonating gases do not explode above 2,000 / 2,100 °C.
Often officials as former soviet Agencies, IAEA, NRC, UNSCEAR, tell the lie of a “hydrogen” or “steam” explosion. That is a lie. It comes from the textbook. Because otherwise reactors would get no licence to be built. They have to keep their inventory inside at all cost. The nuclear textbook is a template and experts push reality through it. The Officials lie about the temperature, or the weight of the reactor lid, or any other data, at least one of them. To downplay the nature of the explosion. But the reactor hall is no more. A fact. Plus the 2,000 tons reactor lid.
50 million Chernobyl curies? IAEA? “The pro-nuclear Time magazine reported in 1989 that perhaps “one billion or more” curies were released, rather than the 50 to 80 million estimated by Russian authorities.” Source: http://www.ratical.org/radiation/Chernobyl/Chernobyl@10p2.html
All radiation maps, doses, emissions are from the text book – not from reality. 50 million curie are: 1,850,000,000,000,000,000 Becquerel (1.85e+18) released by CHERNOBYL. A lie!
There is nearly NOTHING left in the Chernobyl 4 reactor! This is proven!
Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois: 9 Billion Curie
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California: 4,5 Billion Curie
1,85 1,85 1,85 1,85 1,85 1,85… Just remember this number ONE point EIGHT FIVE and the 50
let’s look at the Boiling Water Manual from GE, also for Fukushima:
page 73: CLICK!
Every reactor releases 50 micro curie of radioactive gases: which is 1,850,000 becquerel PER SECOND!
There is the 50 and the 1,85 again!
It’s all from the textbook!
It’s not the reality!
Can you control atoms?
>>>> A normal reactor releases 1,850,000 becquerel per second. Multiply it with x 10 = 18,500,000 becquerel – these are also the offical MAXIMUM LEVELS of radionuclide activity in the exclusion Chernobyl zone in Belarus (from the 1995 Belarus NATIONAL Report):
Again the 1,85 !
daily dose at a 1000 Curie per km² area, for example near Chernobyl reactor 4 with 37 mio becquerel per m² (map) is something like 10 mSv PER DAY – while normal is 1 – 2 mSv per year.
They press reality into their simulation models. Especially Chernobyl. The 50 Mio Curie are used to conceal the fact, that ALL Inventory was thrown out in 1986, thats more than 5 billion curie, not 50 million. But they use the textbook to conceal it, in order to prove that even during an explosion a reactor safe. And now these madmen build a 2nd sarcophagus around and EMPTY reactor, to even underline the 28 years old lie!
a) A steam explosion can not develop 1,2 Terrajoule. Steam explosion’s Maxium -> 50 Gigajoules. But the explosion lifted the 2,000 tons lid away, and then even destroyed the reactor hall! How powerful is that. Only a maximum of 10 to 50 Gigajoule of Energy are possible by a Steam explosion in Chernobyl – it was the water expelled from Reactor 4:
NRC confirmed the terrajoule data:
Yes: 1,400 Cal/gm (calories per gram) are 1,1 Terrajoules = equivalent of 0,2 – 0,3 Kilotons TNT.
There was not enough water, power in water, to create so a high energy explosion, for the 2nd one. This was nuclear.
W54 nuclear warhead is the energy yield equivalent of Chernobyl explosion (0,2 – 0,3 KT TNT):
We are fooled by IAEA and soviet agencies since 1986!
b) What you see here in this video is NOT the fuel melting, because it was thrown completely out by a force of 1,2 terrajule (0,2 – 0,3 KT TNT) and it is NOT graphite fire, there was none according to a heat photo scanner Checherov used shortly after the explosions. What you see is the 2,000 tons reactor lid, that was thrown aside and is GLOWING because of HEAT, it was so hot, that it turned from Red (770 – 800°C) into Yellow (1150 – 1250°C). The helicopter crew did not survive. Interivew with above Infos: Constantine Checherov – Senior Researcher of the Kurchatov Institute – one of the first people who visited the reactor hall after the explosion. He does not believe that the explosion of Chernobyl in ’86 exploded was hydrogen. It was a nuclear
explosion scattered hundreds of tons of radioactive fuel around the station: http://www.novayagazeta.ru/society/6095.html
Info from Interview with Checherov: http://www.novayagazeta.ru/society/6095.html
The fuel can become vaporized:
Vladimir M. Chernousenko, Scientific Director of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics in Kiev’s Task Force for the Rectification of the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident- HE SAID:
“Radiation emission was no less that 80% of the core (with a total of 192 tons), which amounted to 6.4 x 10^9 Ci (Ci = Curie = 37,000,000,000 becquerel) If we divide the figure by the population of the whole earth (4.6 x 10^9 people) then we get 1 Ci per person.”
“15m³ of radioactive substances emitted from Block 4 at this time could be diluted in 15 x 5 x 10,000,000,000,000 km³ if water, In 100 years 15,000 km³ would be needed. In 1,000 years 15 km³ would be the required amount. For comparsion: the total outflow of the world`s rivers is 36,380 km³.” Dilution is just another word for retransmission. More radiation for everyone.
Footage from the inside of Reactor 4:
Prof. Pflugbeil (Germany): “Checherow and I went inside the destroyed reactor in Unit IV, as he is there crowled everywhere, even on the bottom of the reactor – accompanied by a small film crew.” – “I want now speak about the second Sarcophagus, because it does not serve to disguise a dangerous ruin, but for the concealment of dangerous lies. Since there are a lot of inconsistencies. Worldwide, for example, the version that 95 percent of the nuclear fuel still in there – is accepted, and that it would pose a threat for Ukraine and for the whole of Western Europe. Checherov has refuted this claim and he clearly says less than 10 percent are still in there. He was commissioned in 2001 by the Kurchatov Institute, to do a research report related to the second Sarcophagus. He has investigated room by room, measured, photographed, take core samples and has made his research report. He got a high distinction for it and the report ended up in a drawer forever! It interferes with the business.” Source: http://www.taz.de/!82695/
“And that he (Checherov) has worked in the the lower part of the reactor for five hours. He said there were only is 10 tons. Otherwise they would have been so dead as a doornail. When we were in there, that was an uneasy feeling for me. The sound of the instruments, no light, you had to watch where you step and climb and you never knew whether or not chunk falls down from above. There are a thousand different rooms accessible in these ruins, heavily damaged. At the bottom of the reactor pot: We climbed over it broken things. At some areas there were even these elephants ‘feet’ of molten material. Checherov has shown us all.” – “In the reactor pot was nothing. It was all thrown out with tremendous force into a short and violent explosion, which was so strong that it has lifted the 2,000-ton concrete lid. So the energy source is nuclear energy, clearly and the explosion was a nuclear explosion! The Western world – where nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons are completely different – wants to ignore it, because otherwise it would clarify that a nuclear power plant can destroy itself with a nuclear explosion. But in the textbook, is written that a nuclear power plant can not. But it can.”
AN Kiselev, Chernobyl, 1986, block 3: “Power of gamma radiation from a channel, lying on the roof of the third block measured by Zherdev was 2 Sievert per Hour (the limit of the measuring range of the instrument DP-5V ) at a distance of three meters” / “we had to work in an environment where radiation levels could exceed the 10 Sievert per Hour and even higher” / “As soon as the rotary drill bit to the fuel clusters, fuel chips along with the water got into the room , and immediately dramatically increased gamma-ray background” / “Biological protection of the camera has been redesigned in accordance with the requirements of radiation safety.” / “On the tube sites were about 15-20 tons of fuel. On the roof lay the whole fuel assemblies. Approximate weight of 300-350 kg each. The rate per person was calculated by removing 50 kg of graphite or 10-15 kg pieces of fuel rod.” / “the total amount of fuel in the lava-like clusters is within 20 % of the entire nuclear fuel that the reactor had at the time of the accident.”
“Checherov analyzed all the reports and minutes of the Integrated expedition with measurements and calculations. The analysis estimated the amount of fuel made on the basis of thermal measurements showed that this estimate was based on assumptions that do not reflect the real picture of the thermal situation in unit 4, and secondly, were based on experiments that are not based on reliable measurements, and voluntarist declarations of expenditure thermal parameters experimentally recorded variations of which varies in the range of up to two orders of magnitude.” / “The maximum thickness of the fuel accumulation , measured on the spot and recorded on the film is 0.5 meters , and if you increase the thickness of the layer 8 times, then this cluster should have a thickness of 4 meters.” / “At the time of the accident in the reactor core were 1,659 fuel channels withg 190,257 kilograms of uranium or its kg dioxide (UO2).”
“where, how much and in what state the nuclear fuel ?” / “Our reports of fuel found in the Unit 4 was several times smaller, but the debate as to why such differences exist and where the truth is – was not gebated in this symposium” / “regardless of the fact that the reactor vault is empty and you can not see this amount of fuel and the amount of such fuel just could not fit in the observed areas, those who were there and personally saw it with their own eyes the empty space – you can not convince the others that there are not huge amount of fuel as declared by those who have not been there ” / ” it turns out that the minimum found fuel is 53 % of the fuel, and if we accept the second version, you still have to find the 91%!” http://www.souzchernobyl.org/?section=31&id=563
“Valery A. Legasov” – who was the first russian official who spoke about Chernobyl to the IAEA in 1986, and committed suicide. Before his death he made an audiotape, with untold facts about the Chernobyl explosion. Here are the abstracts of his tapes: “About the accident at Chernobyl” by Academician VA Legasov (text from the 4 cassettes) – in russian: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/Legasov_V._Ob_Avarii_Na_Chernobiylsk.pdf
His 5 hours long speech at the IAEA 1996 meeting about Chernobyl was ignored: http://books.google.de/books?id=S-SsDtZG5WgC&pg=PA51&dq=new+scientist+valery+legasov&hl=de&ei=Lx_MTuu-BMaEOqb9uKYP&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
He knew about the insanity of sending liquidators to Chernobyl – he could not convince the IAEA and soviet officials. And decades later, Checherov – also from the same institute, indrectly supported the Legasov.
The now many times quotes Checherov (above) wrote this study. It is not simply a theory. HE WAS THERE, many times, WHERE – according to the IAEA, the Fuel should be. But it is not!
“Two different models of the nuclear explosions are known. According to, the core of the Chernobyl reactor transformed to a turbo-jet solid-phase engine after a very short initial overheating of fuel. It flied like a missile from the reactor vault to the central reactor hall by the hydrodynamic forces of gas-phase streams flushing down from the fuel channels. Then it exploded as an atomic bomb in the spaceof the central hall.” source: http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr79/kr79pdf/Malko1.pdf
THE FULL STUDY – reads like a thriller! BELOW:
This whole article “The Future is on Fire” is dedicated to Constanine Checherov (Константин Чечеров) died on Nov.26, 2012. He was 1,500 times in the empty Chernobyl Reactor 4 . He was the first one proving that Chernobyl is empty. http://ka4.ru/web/419243/423000-424000
Chernobyl became even an inspiration for weapons:
Dear fellow people.
The above-described principle is part of nuclear fission reactors. Whether now, or in the course of the life of a reactor.
Is as old as the man-made nuclear fission itself.
It is a principle that we have overlooked. Have overlooked the major areas of science. What the military-industrial complex is silent about, which is not explained the operation staff of nuclear facilities, which is in no Textbook.
With a containment a core will be boiled and blown out / vented, to avoid explosion.
Without containment, the lid makes the safety valve, but there is an explosion.
The inventory can not be kept.
The decay times are longer than any material.
“10 milli gray create 2 point mutations among 1,000 gametes. These are one seventieth ofl the natural mutation rate. If you take all chromosome mutations 10 milli gray produce one-tenth of the total mutation rate. If each year the maximum allowable dose is reached (5 mSv) the genetic mutation rate is increased in 30 years (one generation) by a fifth.” Prof. Dr. Hedy fritz-niggli, Switzerland. The International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP believes 100 becquerels in one day are the same as a hundred days each day 1 Becquerel. Mathematically correct. Biologically completely wrong.
Herman J Mueller discovered in 1927 the following: ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION OF THE GENE by radiation (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1946) same story proven by Fukushima’s butterflies, remember? There was the Geneva Summit 1955, about the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy. Mueller wanted to present his report in which he had calculated that people in 200 to 300 years – by the current radiation – will have genetic damage as the most affected survivors of Hiroshima. These people, in 10 generations, would have to work only for one thing: To obtain the means to take care of their suffering. This is what Mueller wanted to tell, BUT the AEC (Predecessor of the NRC) gave him no talk permission. I mean: We experience this NOW! Cancer thins the rows around us (malignancy by genomic instability, by radiation). And the cancer drugs are the most expensive out there. More and more people accept euthanasia. We are eradicated, and then we are obedient till death! And then we twist the truth also: More cases because of better diagnostics!
We are getting older? Yes, if we look at the people who were born BEFORE the atomic age. Check it out the ones born TODAY! In what kind of dream world we live in! https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/08/17/fukushimas-butterflies-known-since-1927/ and http://books.google.de/books?id=ihDdAWPakwgC&pg=PA155=onepage&q&f=false
And this principle, as well as the denial and ignoring the same
Will Set The Future