Posts Tagged ‘Krypton 85’


updated Sep21st 2016

one Curie -about 37,000.000,000 disintegrations per second

thanks to Maureen Roy for the study

The actual number of leaking fuel rods in the reactor can not be determined with certainty, said Prof. Tsivoglou, a nuclear expert, who made reports and certificates in the nuclear field / for reactors.The emissions to air and water will also depend on the leakage rate. The radioactive output from the chimney and into the water is very different.
The normal continuous reactor operation will generate a chimney emissions of 0,01 to 0,02 Curie per second = 370,000,000 Becquerel to 740 000 000 Becquerel per second – PER UNIT / REACTOR.
_ What is the benchmark, how much is a nuclear power plant allowed to emit?
According to radiation protection regulation nuclear facilities may not irradiate the general population with more than a maximum of 0,6 millisievert per year (0,3 millisievert through the air plus 0,3 millisievert through sewage). This is often misleadingly called a “30-millirem-concept”, using the unit millirem (which was used in the past). In order to estimate the dose of a nuclear power plant that causes (measurable) effects, operators of the facility and the licensing authorities calculate the effects of emissions on fictional local residents, the (a) so-called “reference man”. Hereby a number of more or less well-founded assumptions and realistic models are used – from dilution and spread of the exhaust gases to the living, eating and drinking habits of “reference man”. Which is, by the way, always a young, healthy, adult male. https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2013/06/08/pregnant-avoid-the-nuclear-power-plants/
The upper standard of gross emissions can be achieved: 0,05 Curie per second = 1 850 000 000 Becquerel per second – PER UNIT / REACTOR.
This makes 59,200,000,000,000,000 Becquerel per Year – PER UNIT / REACTOR.
Worldwide this makes: 23,680,000,000,000,000,000 per Year for ALL operating Reactors, EACH YEAR.
This is in ONE YEAR already 13 times the official Emission for Chernobyl (50 million curie) the IAEA has calculated. In ONE year.
Independent sources say the Chernobyl emission was more than 5 billion curie, or 185,000,000,000,000,000,000 becquerel.
Let’s compare the radioactive emissions from the reactors with the Bomb Tests, with a quote from the CTBTO, which operates the global radiation detection network:
“A number of underground tests were also carried out from September 1957, with all testing going underground after 1962. “Storax Sedan” was part of the Operation Plowshare programme to investigate the use of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes such as mining. It caused more radioactive fallout contamination than any other nuclear explosion conducted in the United States. Detonated on 6 July 1962, Sedan released roughly 880,000 curies of Iodine 131 into the atmosphere.”
That is only the Iodine: 32,560,000,000,000,000 becquerel.
“The total amount of plutonium-239 released to the atmosphere as a result of the 23 atmospheric nuclear tests is estimated at 3,300 curies, approximately 48 kilograms in weight. One millionth of a gram of plutonium-239 can cause cancer if inhaled. The amount of plutonium-239 still contained within the Lop Nor site in 1991 as a result of underground nuclear testing was estimated by IPPNW as 1,800 curies (25 kilograms). A further two million curies of caesium-137 and 1.3 million curies of strontium-90 were released into the atmosphere.” https://www.ctbto.org/nuclear-testing/the-effects-of-nuclear-testing/the-united-states-nuclear-testing-programme/
and: “According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the tests in the Marshall Islands released 6.3 billion curies (See Chart 2) of I-131 alone, which is 42 times the amount released by atmospheric nuclear testing in Nevada.”
But it can be again compared to a SINGLE REACTOR (remember the 16,000,000,000 becquerel inventory of each reactor) – this time with a Spent Fuel Pool: http://www.nirs.org/factsheets/routineradioactivereleases.htm
Let’s compare the bomb tests to reactor emissions (thanks Bob Farquar for all the data!)
“1952 – ‘Fox’ detonated atop a 300 foot (90m) tower on Yucca Flat area 4 at 11:59 GMT with a yield of 11 kilotons from the LANL device, a Mk-5, during Operation Tumbler-Snapper, releasing 1.6 million curies of Iodine-131 into the atmosphere. 28th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.0955, -116.1064″
“1953 – ‘Grable’ detonated 524 feet (160m) above Frenchman Flat area 5 at 15:30 GMT with a yield of 15 kilotons from the LANL device, a Mk-9 cannon shell, after being fired from a 280MM cannon during Operation Upshot-Knothole as part of a weapons effects test, releasing 2.1 million curies of Iodine-131 into the atmosphere. 42nd U.S. test. Coordinates: 36.793, -115.9156.”
1967 – Two hours and thirty minutes later at 15:00 GMT, ‘Knickerbocker’ detonated in a vertical shaft 2,069 feet (630m) beneath Pahute Mesa area U20 with a yield of 76 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Latchkey, causing a 5.54 magnitude ground shock and venting 110 curies of Xenon-133 over a period of 5.6 days during drill-back operations. 503rd U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.24789, -116.48106″
“1970 – ‘Hudson Moon’ detonated in a tunnel 1,386 feet (422m) beneath Rainier Mesa area U12 at 14:16 GMT with a yield of 9 kilotons from the LLNL device as part of a weapons effects test during Operation Mandrel, causing a 5.9 magnitude ground shock and venting 3 curies of Xenon-135 in an uncontrolled release lasting 20 hours. 651st U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.18256, -116.21427.”
“7.18256, -116.21427.– Forty-four minutes later at 15:00 GMT, ‘Flask-Green-1’, ‘Flask-Yellow-2’, and ‘Flask-Red-3’ detonated simultaneously at 15:00 GMT in separate but adjacent vertical shafts beneath Yucca Flat area U2 with varying yields from the three LLNL devices as part of a Project Plowshares fundamental research test on development of clean devices for hard rock excavation during Operation Mandrel, causing a 5.6 magnitude ground shock, creating a 974 foot (297m) diameter subsidence crater and venting 25,000 curies of Xenon-133 from surface ground zero pipes and cables. 652nd U.S. test.
‘Flask-Green-1’ coordinates: 37.11336, -116.06354 Depth: 1,735 feet (529m) Yield:”
“1957 – ‘Boltzman’ detonated atop a 490 foot (150m) tower on Yucca Flat area 7 at 11:55 GMT with a yield of 12 kilotons from the LANL weapons development device – an XW-40 lightweight boosted fission warhead – during the first test of Operation Plumbbob, releasing 1.9 million curies of Iodine-131 and Strontium-90 into the atmosphere. 87th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.0947, -116.0245.”
“1970 – ‘Piton-C’ detonated in a vertical shaft 330 feet (100m) beneath Yucca Flat area U9 at 11:45 GMT with a yield of 2.5 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Mandrel, causing a 4.2 magnitude ground shock and releasing 25,000 curies of effluents over a period of 2.4 hours from surface ground zero. 653rd U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.13842, -116.03079.”
“Fifteen minutes later at 12:00 GMT, ‘Piton-1’ and ‘Piton-2’ detonated simultaneously in separate 775 foot (236m) deep shafts beneath Yucca Flat area U9 with yields of 0.8 kilotons and <20 kilotons respectively from the two LLNL weapons development devices during Operation Mandrel, causing a 3.8 magnitude ground shock and venting >10 curies of Xenon from surface ground zero. 654th U.S. test.
‘Piton-1’ coordinates: 37.14393, -116.03349.
‘Piton-2’ coordinates: 37.14056, -116.03497″
“1963 – Two hours and 58 minutes later at 16:58 GMT, ‘Apshapa’ detonated in a vertical shaft 291 feet beneath Yucca Flat area U9 with a yield <20 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Storax, venting 4 curies of Xenon-133 from surface ground zero for a period of 25 minutes following detonation and for four hours during drill-back operations. 328th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.12459, -116.04092.”
“1968 – ‘Tub-A’, ‘Tub-B’, ‘Tub-C’, ‘Tub-D’, and ‘Tub-F’ detonated simultaneously in separate vertical shafts beneath Yucca Flat area U10 at varying depths with unspecified yields from the five LLNL weapons development devices during Operation Crosstie. ‘Tub-D’ vented 1,600 curies of Xenon and Krypton during gas sampling operations. 550th U.S. test.”
“1977 – ‘Carnelian’ detonated in a vertical shaft 682 feet (208m) beneath Yucca Flat area U4 at 14:07 GMT with a yield of 0.6 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Fulcrum, causing a 3.7 magnitude ground shock and venting 6.8 curies of Xenon-133 during drill-back operations. 814th U.S test. Coordinates: 37.09751, -116.09182″
“1957 – ‘Wheeler’ detonated beneath a tethered balloon 490 feet (150m) above Yucca Flat area B9 at 12:45 GMT with a yield of 0.197 kilotons (197 tons) from the LLNL weapons development device, an XW-51 air-to-air warhead progenitor, during Operation Plumbbob, venting 29,000 curies of Iodine-131 into the atmosphere. 107th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.1347, -116.0417″
“1962 – ‘Raritan’ detonated in a vertical shaft 516 feet (157m) beneath Yucca Flat area U9 at 17:00 GMT with a yield of 2 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Storax, leaving a 196 foot diameter subsidence crater and venting 1,200 curies of radiation for 8 hours during drill-back operations from the post-shot hole casing. 276th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.13026, -116.04561″
“1968 – ‘Noggin’ detonated in a vertical shaft 1,908 feet (581m) beneath Yucca Flat area U9 at 14:00 GMT with a yield of 120 kilotons from the LLNL weapons development device during Operation Bowline, causing a 5.6 magnitude ground shock, leaving a 984 foot (300m) diameter subsidence crater and venting 16 curies of Xenons over a period of 3 hours from the drill-back ventilation system. 574th U.S. test. Coordinates: 37.13597, -116.04824.”
Really there is no difference between a reactor and a bomb. Both emit damaging radionuclides into the world. The bomb only when it explodes, but the reactor explodes in slow motion each second! So slow it is called controlled chain reaction, but basically the same thing happens in it. While a normal reactor houses the radioactivity of 1,000 Hiroshima bombs, the “Spent” Fuel Pools even more!.
Not considered even is the emission of Krypton 85 (full decay time is 100 years) from Reactors. It is hold back in the Contaiment furing operation. But the fuel is then send as Spent Fuel to Reprocessing facilities, which release the Krypton from all the reactors fuel. From worldwide reactors where they get it.  So, in the end it IS emitted. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/193/4249/195.extract
The estimated emissions from a facility reprocessing and irradiating 1,400 tons reactor fuel per year is one million Curie TRITIUM (full decay time is 120 years) or 37,000,000,000,000,000 becquerel:

NFCNWCfrom ratical.org

some quotes, showing how the military industrial complex works:

“In 1974 the operators of the huge Savannah River weapons facility at Aiken, South Carolina, accidentally released some 435,000 curies of radioactive tritium in a single day—the largest single tritium emission ever reported in the U.S. Studies of the local water system show serious contamination, and there are preliminary indications of an escalated cancer rate among people living near the plant”


Cobalt 60 fabrication plants, for example, are allowed to expose the public to twenty times more radiation than a commercial reactor. Many of the small radiation by-product plants are also located in thickly populated areas. American Atomics sat just a few hundred yards from a trailer park, a church, a day-care center, a potato chip warehouse, several homes, and the central kitchen for the Tucson public school system. The plant regularly leaked large quantities of tritium gas into the atmosphere—285,000 curies of it in 1978 alone, according to company records. In September of that year a maintenance worker opened the wrong valve and sent into the Tucson air a single “puff” of twenty-one thousand curies, a sizable dose. The public was not informed.”

“In 1958 the military threw an entire atomic reactor vessel, containing thirty thousand curies of radiation, into the Atlantic. It later tried to retrieve the vessel, but could not find it”

FROM: http://www.nucleardemolition.com/Killing_Our_Own.pdf

A normal reactor houses 16 billion curie of radiation, or 1,000 hiroshima bombs.


Among all these radionuclices are some very damaging ones:
STRONTIUM: Worldwide deposition of strontium-90 through 1990: Keep in Mind: Per ton Uranium there is 836,0 gram (29,5oz) of Strontium 89 & 90. ONE gram Strontium 90 (0.035oz) has a specific activity of 5,300,000,000,000 Becquerel: KEEP THAT IN MIND, if you read somewhere: Only 0,5 g Strontium 90… The Becquerel counts! Full decay time is 285 years = 10 human generations… It mimics Calcium and can be measured in Baby teeth and bones, the most important home of stem cells http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/243453
CESIUM : “The relative risks for stillbirth and preliminary malformations are 0,5 – 2 % per 1000 becquerel of Cesium 137 in m² soil.” Page 33: http://www.tschernobylkongress.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdfs/ScherbVoigt_fehlbildungen_fehlende_geburten.pdf by Dr. , Scherb, Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry Germany

Not the bombs on the launch pad irradiate us, the reactors do!

Protest against Nuclear weapons? Do you know what it is?
A distraction. To distract us away from the damage by Nuclear Energy. Not true? Look at only ONE reactor. A normal commercial reactor houses the radioactivity of 1,000 nuclear bombs, or 16 billion curie. And it emits each second parts of it.
Yes, there are two types of nuclear weapons. The one sitting on its launch pad or in the silo / sub. The other type of nuclear weapon is decelerated (controlled chain reaction) and produces electricity and cancer. Now look at the one dimensional protest movement again, It should read: DISARM the NUCLEAR REACTORS!

Instead they are armed:

Plutonium – not only for the bombs we know, but also for decelerated bombs we call reactors:
“the present-day water-moderated reactor will rapidly consume all of the U-235, and nuclear reactors would disappear.”They need Plutonium to continue to operate, because natural uranium 235 runs out of business! https://ratical.org/radiation/CNR/PP/chp1.html#fig2


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“Large-scale breakdown of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere was initiated in 1958 by high atmosphere bomb tests, and continues due to releases from power plants and reprocessing plants. Radioactive Krypton-85 goes to the stratosphere where it greatly enhances CFC ozone damage.”  http://ratical.org/radiation/HoLLR.html#p5


“The percentage of oxygen in the air is down to about 19 percent. The expected amount is 21 percent of oxygen. Oxygen is formed by trees and plankton. Trees and plankton are killed by radiation.” http://ratical.org/radiation/HoLLR.html#p4

“Trees and green plants provide about half, and plankton provide the other half of our oxygen. Phytoplankton, which are the base of the marine food chain, is declining. Various studies confirm this: plankton in parts of the Antarctic Ocean is declining up to 12 percent.”



The nuclear industry is responsible for the ozone hole. Radioactive gases like Krypton-85 appear in increasing amounts due to the bomb tests, releases and accidents at nuclear reactors and especially from the nuclear fuel recycling plants. Krypton-85 goes up to the stratosphere where it creates ice crystals which catalytically enhance the destruction of ozone by the fluorhydrocarbons.”


This is why are people so irritated, the surface ozone, less oxygen, uvb radiation…

OVERVIEW: Monitoring of the radioactivity in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

Sellafield Cesium 137 simulation

1998, two dead pigeons from Sellafield, UK Nuclear holocaust plant: Per Kg Pigeon feathers: 246,000 Bq Cesium 137, 26,000 Bq Plutonium 239, 18,500 Bq Americium 241, also Rhutenium 106, Europium 154, and Cer 144. Says Prof. Dr. Kirchner, Germany: http://www.castor.de/diskus/sonst/sellafieldtauben.html

-> 26,000 bq Pu239 = 0,000011 g Plutonium 239!


Radionuclides and Sediments = Time Machine: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2013/07/15/radionuclides-and-sediments-time-machine/

Computer simulation: assuming a continuous release of Cesium 137 of 1,000,000,000,000 Bq TBq per year from radioactive waste from Novaya Zemlya (Russia) http://www.bsh.de/de/Meeresdaten/Beobachtungen/Radioaktivitaet/Kara-See/Animation_Kara.jsp

the impact on nature:

Turritopsis nutricula is a immortal jellyfish http://www.sciencepub.net/nature/ns0802/03_1279_hongbao_turritopsis_ns0802_15_20.pdf

Sea Lions stranding: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/03/130319-sea-lions-pups-strandings-california-animals-science/

Whales stranding: http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/beached-killer-whales-rescued-off-fraser-island-but-marine-experts-fear-for-pod-survivors/story-fnihsrk2-1226673943393

Total release of Fukushima reactor One: 40,000 trilltion becquerel – 70% went into sea: http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201202290025

47 quadrillion becquerels of cesium-137 released into Pacific from Fukushima — Nearly 50 times original Tepco estimate: http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/10/4127/2013/bgd-10-4127-2013.html

Plankton takes in 200,000th of a radioactive substance:

“If the cesium in the fresh water happens to be radioactive cesium-137, from a nuclear reactor or other source, then the fish will contain 1000 times more cesium-137 than the fresh water itself, on a weight-for-weight basis.” Source: http://www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/PP/chp2.html

“The dangerous thing about the water contamination is that the food chains are much longer there than on land. Among the many steps in the water to accumulate more and more radioactive substances in the organisms. This means that contamination in fish at the end of the food chain is much higher than the water in which they swim” / Radiophobia: “government calls the fears of the people “radiation phobia” = unfounded anxiety before radioactivity. Everyone should just be pretty happy, then they would not get sick. Only sad people would get radiation sickness.” / “The special radiation sensitivity of children is yet not considered.” / “the snow melt began in the mountains. “In the forested mountains the radioactive clouds are stuck, which now come in small streams running down again and causes the rivers to be charged more radioactive” … http://www.n-tv.de/politik/Fukushima-ist-nicht-ueberstanden-article5731966.html

Cesium 137 activity is 200,000 times higher back waters (!) than before Chernobyl:


Tokyo University of Marine Science,”8,000,000,000 ~ 93,000,000,000 Bq of Cs-137 can leak to the sea every single day”: http://fukushima-diary.com/2013/03/tokyo-university-of-marine-science-8000000000-93000000000-bq-of-cs-137-can-leak-to-the-sea-every-single-day/

= up tp 0,03 g Cesium 137 PER DAY!

Nuclear Textbook – We always read: “small amount escaped…”
What is “small”?

Marine Plankton as an Indicator of Low-Level Radionuclide Contamination in the Southern Ocean: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/6802363-hfGOhq/6802363.pdf

Radioecological Studies on the Plankton of the Cooling Water Reservoir of the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q220n14kl169g207/

POLIKARPOV, G. G. 1966. RADIOECOLOGY of AQUATIC organisms. 281 (PDF page) or respectively on “printed” 292: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/5557734-tlwxvK/

Acantharia (Plankton) has a Strontium Skeleton: http://tolweb.org/Acantharia/2385 takes in Radio-Strontium – just as us.

Strontium 90 remains in surface and remobilisation of adsorbed Strontium: http://leeds.academia.edu/IBurke/Papers/1664859/Effect_of_groundwater_pH_and_ionic_strength_on_strontium_sorption_in_aquifer_sediments_Implications_for_90Sr_mobility_at_contaminated_nuclear_sites

Isotopes in Sea Life: http://books.google.de/books?id=4n3wAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q&f=false

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