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Posts Tagged ‘indium’

melt-dissolve-vent

One analyses:

melted-control-rods

based on one TEPCO PDF:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2017/images/handouts_170719_01-e.pdf

with kind regards,

From the Toys R Us at TEPCO HQ.

In the imagination of the people and in the graphics of so called experts the molten core exists as a whole. We should separate from this. And look again at reactor fuel assemblies.
These consist of SINGLE, very small fuel pellets, many of them.
The water level sank in March 2011, right? Individual pellets were affected one after the other, downwards. They began to change their aggregate state. They melted, yes,but they became even hotter, due to the nuclear reaction, and DISSOLVED, or in other words, easy to VENT.


TEPCO melted, vented, melted, vented. But the space is limited.


So the reactor housing /burst protection exploded. That’s when the particle version of the reactor finally became free, after days of venting tiny bits into the air.

A second important thing I would simply like to explain. Cooling. If you try to cool a cooking plate in your kitchen, which is at the highest level, with water, The water evaporates, leaves traces, and your whole kitchen will be full of steam.The cooking plate will continue to heat because it is operated electrically.The only chance is to switch it off.

Now, for the nuclear fuel: Once it exists, it makes reactions (well, this is some sort of analogy to the kitchen). Without cooling water, it becomes hotter and hotter. It reaches the melting temperature in 3 seconds. That’s when it is 2,800°C or 5,072°F hot. It is so hot, that any water immediately fizzles, not even coming anyway near it. This steam must also be vented out, in the pressure containment. You can’t switch it off, because it’s nuclear reaction depends on natural laws and not on electrics like your kitchen.

Fukushima Unit 3 Muon Scan Finds NO FUEL In Reactor Vessel: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2017/images/handouts_170727_01-e.pdf

 

There was no fuel found in Reactor 1
There was no fuel found in Reactor 2
There was no fuel found in Reactor 3

TEPCO about Reactor 1: “It is considered that there is no fuel debris or very little even if exist”: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2017/images/handouts_170727_02-e.pdf

TEPCO just downgraded (!) the radiation readings in Reactor 2 (they calculated estimates from visual “noise”!: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2017/images/handouts_170727_03-e.pdf

 

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妊娠中の日本人女性の避難すぐ

The Reactor pressure vessel  (RPV) is around the core with the reactor fuel: http://www.nuclearevents.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/fukushima-reactor-building-containment-110314d-021.jpeg

The Fukushima containment is indeed closed under pressure, unlike Chernobyl, which had no containment. This means that the force of an explosion would actually be greater in Fukushima. If the reactor operator let#s out pressure, it decreases the possible risk of an explosion, but sets free unbelievable amounts of curie / radionuclides.

This is the problem of Western reactors: The control rods are made of a material -> cadmium-silver-indium. If something goes wrong, the control rods melt first. It is likely that the control rods are rather lost than the core. – says Ross Hesketh, a nuclear scientist, ON PDF PAGE 42 HERE: http://wilpfinternational.org/publications/Tchernobyl_consequences.pdf

Normal reactor inventory: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/inventory-reactor-beznau2.jpg

Screenshot here: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/control-rods-western-reacto.jpg

The control rods are made of

>> cadmium (melting point: 321.07 °C, 594.22 K, 609.93 °F)

>> silver (961°C) 1234.93 K, 1763.2 °F)

>> indium (156°C 429.7485 K, 313.8773 °F)

>> The cladding (zirconium), which they found in parts outside the plant: 1857 °C

Melting point of the UO² fuel: 2800°C.

If something goes wrong, the control rods melt first.

They are NOT in the reactor 2 video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y3Vdiwg6c5o

Then the cladding melts, then the reactor fuel melts.

Radioactive Silver was found in japanese fish: http://www.cnn.com/2012/02/22/world/asia/japan-fukushima-pacific/index.html

when they found zirconium outside the plant they told the public, that it is from the spent fuel. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20110325-OYT1T00127.htm Spent fuel = diversionary tactic.
TEPCO admits reactor fuel left containment – how can that be, if the containment is not destroyed? ANSWER: Pressure cooker system, with a valve / pipe.

quote from pro TEPCO article: http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201112010004As for the No. 2 and No. 3 reactors, most of the melted fuel stayed within the pressure vessel, TEPCO added.” THEY ADMIT, that Fuel left the containment, but the containment stayed stable. Does this mean that fuel can (I think) evaporize and leave the containment?

UO² reactor fuel can evaporate: http://books.google.de/books?id=9hCLf0u5YUgC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21&dq=uranium+oxyde+evaporate&source=bl&ots=ctDqVJHxlU&sig=Ht3rYnNJ-tXHZlHU4ibwiVS7Amk&hl=de&sa=X&ei=3Vg2T5yLNYem0AXSpZS3Ag&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=evaporate&f=false

And the United Nations ended their study about the health effects under 1 year after the fukushima explosions. ONE YEAR is enough for them. Even the UN’s own WHO says a cancer patient has to survive 5 years to be called “cured” (although the patient might die after 6 or more years). This is not science. This is nuclear holocaust: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/05/21/u-n-launches-study-of-japan-nuclear-crisis-results-directly-influenced-by-atomic-industry/

The term “pressure cooker” is used for the new advanced boiling water reactor (Fukushima’s successor) AP 1000 -> HERE: http://fairewinds.com/content/ap-1000-press-conference-%E2%80%93-technical-statement IAEA advises TEPCO to renew the radionuclide “lie 1986”, for nearly 26 years IAEA lies to us about the remaining fuel in reactor 4. Most of it was Blown out and the same now has probably happened in reactor(s) in Fukushima.

Vaporizing UO² fuel is an old hat. It’s called PUREX (pro nuclear sites: http://www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/i-neri2005AnnualReport.pdf) http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf69.html) and used for the atomic weapons program. The know-how was given to reprocessing facilites. Of course, there is no nitric acid IN the containment like in La Hague, or Sellafield.

1,555,036,000,000,000 Becquerel (water & air) = 42000 Curie. Source: EdF France http://energie.edf.com/fichiers/fckeditor/Commun/En_Direct_Centrales/Nucleaire/Centrales/Fessenheim/Publications/documents/Umwelt%20&%20Strahlenschutz_Juli_August2011.pdf 1,850,000 Becquerel into air – Source: GE USA: https://tekknorg.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/ge-ari2.jpg It can reach 0,01 – 0,02 Curie per Second from Reactor Chimney and even 0,05 Curie – which are 1,600,000 Curie per Year: “Radioactive Pollution Control in Minnesota, Final Report for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency – by by Ernest Tsivogloue”. https://www.osti.gov/opennet/detail.jsp?osti_id=16313726&query_id=0

TEPC-NRC-ChernoFuku

On PDF Page 59 of TEPCO document 1-8 we find: 4 x 10 mSv PER HOUR at a distance of 0,28 km: http://www.scribd.com/doc/88568685/%E7%A6%8F%E5%B3%B6%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%80%E5%8E%9F%E7%99%BA%E4%BA%8B%E6%95%85%E7%9B%B4%E5%BE%8C%E3%81%8B%E3%82%89%E3%81%AE%E7%8F%BE%E5%A0%B4%E3%81%A8%E6%94%BF%E5%BA%9C%E3%81%AE%E3%82%84%E3%82%8A%E5%8F%96%E3%82%8AFAX1-8 – which is exactly the the 400 mSv PER HOUR mentioned in this NRC correspondence on PDF page 15 (“There was a media report of a 40-rem dose measured somewhere near the plant.”): http://www.houseoffoust.com/fukushima/NRCFOIA/ML12052A106.pdf in my view, this speaks for brutal high radiation, if we take into account, that the air even weakens the concentration. This is 10 times the daily dose at a 1000 Curie per km² area, for example near Chernobyl reactor 4 / hot sport, with 37 mio becquerel per m² (map): http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/Chernobyl-map.jpg and I _think_ this speaks for the lost inventory of containment and inventory. Because it is also reactor fuel, that is all over there (494 Kg of Plutonium 239 was in the burnup fuel of Chernobyl): Page 6 right top: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/Artikel%20zu%20Tschernobyl%20in%20Nuclear%20Technology%20Vol%2090.pdf
According to KAWATA Toumio, Fellow of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), all reactor inventory of Fukushima Reactor 2 was released on March 14th 2011, 6:22 pm: http://www.strahlentelex.de/Stx_11_588_S01-02.pdf

“During normal reactor operation subcooled water enters the fuel bundle from the lower plenum and experiences heating from the fuel rods. There are three different types of boiling heat transfer to water in forced convection systems: nucleate boiling, which is an extremely efficient mode of heat transfer, allowing large quantities of heat to be transferred with a very small temperature rise at the heated wall. As heat transfer rate is increased the boiling transfer surface alternates between film and nucleate boiling, leading to fluctuations in heated wall temperatures. The point of departure from the nucleate boiling region into the transition boiling region is called the boiling transition. Transition boiling begins at the critical power, and is characterized by fluctuations in cladding surface temperature. Stable film boiling occurs at the highest heat transfer rates; it begins as transition boiling comes to an end. Film boiling heat transfer is characterized by wall temperatures which are significantly higher than those experienced during nucleate boiling.” page 17: http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1002/ML100220484.pdf and “early boiling transition to within one second. This level of accuracy is acceptable because the conditions at dryout are not changing rapidly enough within one second to significantly alter the post dryout behavior. This provides reasonable assurance that TASC can be used to predict early boiling transition” page 8 http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1002/ML100220484.pdf full archive: http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1002

possible temperatures in a reactor: 4000 – 5000 ° K: http://books.google.de/books?id=oEqd0IeAhccC&pg=PA6&hl=de&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=3#v=snippet&q=4000&f=false these temperatures ionize steam into hydrogen and oxygen and are no longer chemical but nuclear. the file above is the OFFICIAL british statement.

To IAEA: Stop calling the situation “under control” – because you lost inventory! End the lies! For 26 years you are LYING to the world, telling us, that still 95 % of the Chernobyl reactor fuel is in reactor 4.

Reason: If 95% are IN the reactor, you can say “only” 50 million curie left the reactor. This is the connection: Excluding the possibility of an atomic explosion in an reactor leads to the comclusion that ONLY 5% (50 mio. Curie) left the reactor. That not much fuel can leave a reactor in general. But the violence of the explosions in Chernobyl was 1,2 Terrajoule – the maximum of a chemical reaction is 50 Gigajoule. This is the spanish analysis of Martinez-Val: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/Artikel%20zu%20Tschernobyl%20in%20Nuclear%20Technology%20Vol%2090.pdf So, it is possible that a) a reactor destroys itself and b) loses all it’s inventory – by 1) explosion / power burst (without containment: Chernobyl) or by 2) short melting process and dissolving fuel process – and pressure drain (with containment: Fukushima).

Chernobyl: Radiation emission was no less that 80% of the core (with a total of 192 tons) – If we divide the figure by the population of the whole earth then we get 1 Curie per person – or 3,7 billion becquerel. http://www.ratical.org/radiation/Chernobyl/ChernobylIftI.html

5 billion curie left the reactor. And every year we have 2 Chernobyl catastrophes by 400 reactors operating: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/02/18/every-year-twice-chernobyl/

Chernobyl’s not welded lid (weight, according to Russians: 2,000 tons) was a safety valve.

Nearly no fuel left in Chernobyl 4 reactor – footage, interviews, starting at 07:55: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgCydo5Y2sA&feature=related IAEA lies to us since 1986.

EVIDENCE: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zP5neBujiFU&feature=related The containment has to keep the core inside. Yes, but not in every physical state, it seems. And the man who was inside reactor 4 more than 500 times, “Checherov” said there is no radioactive fuel left in the reactor and that a nuclear explosion took place at the reactor, which vaporized the fuel at a temperature of 40000°C (72032°F) Source: http://www.springerlink.com/content/5tr8g6u3v5acxa4r/

explaination: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/11/12/the-atomic-reactor-explosions-of-fukushima-and-chernobyl/

From Xavier Nast :

“Since the beginning, the reports through the conventional media are antonymic.
It means that the authorities knee from the 14th March 2011how much Plutonium are travelling through the atmosphere, contaminating certainly a large place in Japan but also the complete Northern hemisphere. For this reason it is possible to understand now the policy of Japanese government was to shut up the main comprehensive stages, and to give only the secondary information. But also it is possible to understand the closing of all nuclear plant. Now everybody has just to hope random is benefit for himself and their children, because scholastic effects will hit people more and more like after Chernobyl.
I am leaving in an area where Chernobyl cloud hot particles have met a wet atmosphere and the rains have brought down the plums of radio nuclides and contaminated soils and food.
In 25 years I lost 29 people younger as 50 years old from various cancers, people from my family, friends, colleagues, old fellows, neighbors. This one, a lot people from Europe inside a circle of 1000 miles from Chernobyl, has observed the same facts. Oncologists knee the facts and the main cause but they are not allowed to talk. But new cancers are increasing every year and one conclusion is that occurring of detection of those new cancers are 4 times higher that before 1985.
Since 1960 every nuclear physician knows that plutonium is a hyper poison inside a human an animal and vegetable.
Today we will start to understand those old theories. What is surprising is the total deny of former and various experiences, lies of the political responsibles and apathy of the mass?

Ask you just one question: Where is the storage pool of nuclear M.OX fuel from unit n°3?
Have you seen pictures? Have you heart if the water level isn’t still correct? What is M.OX?
You could imagine easily the consequences of Fukushima if you have understood those of Chernobyl, just to imagine the factor between both of them. This is the question? 0.1 , 1 , 10 or more?”

by Stella Blackwell Steinbach

Number of fuel assemblies

In the reactor

400 unit 1

548 unit 2

548 unit 3

? unkown..loading was in progress unit 4

548 unit 5

764 unit 6

Spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pool

292 unit 1

587 unit 2

514 U-238 and 20-ish? 10+yrs/old PU-239 rods unit 3

1,331 U-238 & MOX 40 PU-239 Breeder rods unit 4

946unit 5

876 unit 6

New fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pool

100 unit 1

28 unit 2

52 unit 3

204 unit 4

48 unit 5

64 unit 6

Common Spent Fuel Pool

6300 fuel assemblies

by Pattie L. Brassard

Originally… the PU-239 rods in Reactor 4 stood about a foot out of the rack there in the center… unmarked. The don’t have handles, and used a ” C-Clamp ” type bit with pins on sides to lift them and move them. They have burned-off to the point that they are now recessed into the rack. #3 pool had a PU-239 detonation… the age of the plutonium meant 30% of the rods were PU-240 & 241… the PU-240 is what made the nuclear blast fizzle-out. Same goes for the corium of #3 when it hit the water table. There IS NO spent pool on #3 anymore! Its contents burned, shattered, and / or was arisolized in the blast. The rods remaining were thrown all over the ground aroud the buildings.They are now piled / stored in large ” totes ‘ over to the south west of reactor buildings. They thought it was reactor that blew-out.. and used choppers to dump water.. what’s left of the pool maybe holds a foot or two of water now? The pool blast had removed the yellow ‘ CAP ‘ from #3 reactor… but the corium was already gone… and the ‘ plug ‘ on the PCV was still on.. but cracked.. and pissing-out steam. the following day that second in-ground criticality happened.. it tossed the plug way over onto the south-west driveway to the gate !!! And that’s when the real black smoke started to pour out of #3 building. It also ignited the gasses in #4.. methane in lower levels (damaged pool supports) and hydrogen from the now dry contents of the open-top reactor core of #4 – It was being loaded when the quake hit.

Life-Upgrade.com

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