(photo by Belrad)
On April 5th I went to BELRAD Institute (http://belrad-institute.org/) in Belarus (got 72% of the Chernobyl fallout), with a friend and translator, to get important data about their work. Here I present with the permission of vice director Mr. Babenko of BELRAD, the Children radiation maps of Belarus (below). First, some background on the data: We see here 17 regions of Belarus:
Irradiated areas and relatively “CLEAN” areas. Children have Cesium in their bodies, no matter if they live in “clean” or irradiated areas. This is one important fact these maps show. Why is that? The average irradiated soil in Belarus is: 1 – 40 Curie per square kilometer (= 37,000 – 1,480,000 becquerel per m²) of radionuclides, such as Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Americium 241 and other radionuclides. It reaches also 160 Curie per km², although it is 40 on official maps, but reaches 18,500,000 becquerel per m² in some places. Here is more info: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/03/04/japanese-children-cancer-outlook-children-need-absolutely-clean-food/ Here is a list of the radionuclides: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/Primary%20Radionuclides.gif
A brief introduction:
The Chernobyl Radiation Monitoring System in Belarus today: direct PDF link http://www.ec-sage.net/members/paper2%20V.Nesterenko.ppt (on a pro nuclear website)
Over 5,000kBq/㎡ of Cesium 137 Contamination. Fukushima City, Shinhamachō : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gvn8BPGYy68
Cesium 137: A 1,3 billionths of a gram of Cesium 137 (4,000 becquerel) creates a load of 100 Becquerel per Kg in the body of a 40 Kg heavy child.
Cesium full decay time ist 300 years and it is different to Potassium 40:
The circles on the region graphic mostly show GREEN and YELLOW. Green means: Children have 0 – 20 Becquerel of Cesium 137 per body kilogram (2,20 pounds or 35,20 ounzes). Yellow means: Children have 20 – 100 Becquerel of Cesium 137 per body kilogram.
“Schoolchildren in contaminated areas received radiologically clean food free of charge in school canteens and spent a month in a sanatorium, in a clean environment, each year. For reasons of economy the annual sanatorium stay has been shortened, and communities in some contaminated areas have been classified as “clean”, thus ending the supply of clean food from the state. ” PDF: http://www.ratical.org/radiation/radioactivity/ChronicCs137iico.pdf Radio-Cesium helps dying. Masked by “ordinary” causes of death.
Cesium 137 and Children
Cardiac insufficiency in 18% of children with less than 5 becquerel per kg
65% in children with 11 to 26 becquerels per kg
87% in children with 74 becquerels per kg
About Whole Body Counters: They give you an average of the WHOLE burden in your body of radioactive atoms (Cesium 137 for example) in Speed (Becquerel) per body Kilogram (bq/kg). BUT: It is a WHOLE and NOT a PARTIAL BODY or PARTIAL ORGAN SCANNER. There is a tiny flash each time energy is given out by the radioactive atoms in your children (in the crystals of the device). It appears below a chair in which your child sits. This flash is “translated” into / via a program / computer into Becquerel per Kg. The device is shielded with lead against background radiation. And it is NOT invasive, not dangerous for you and your child. This means: a) If you have 20 Bq / Kg Cesium 137, you can have 10 or 100 times more Cesium 137 in your heart and / or cardio vascular system, because Cesium mimics potassium. And b) a child takes in even 3 to 5 times more substances, among them of course radioactive atoms. The fast metabolism does not help, and the mitosis even accelerates the damage.
Download the Children Radiation Maps: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/MAPS.pdf
Download History of Belrad (from above): http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/NesterenkoChernobyl-Belarus.pdf
Official BELARUSIAN radiation maps (from the textbook, and not real measurements): http://www.rbic.by/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=256&Itemid=86
WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES?
FULL ENGLISH ARTICLE AND CHILDREN RADIATION MAPS (from http://www.enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org)
Caesium 137, food, children, apple pectin: http://radionucleide.free.fr/Stresseurs/smw-Galina_Bandazhevskaya.pdf
Nesterenko, founder of BELRAD: “Children receive the highest doses, because the dose coefficients, in a 3 year old child, are 5 times higher than in adults.”
But the Children Radiation Maps are based upon Whole Body Counter measurments of Children, measuring Cesium 137. They are the latest maps available by Belrad. More Info: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/03/02/mother-how-much-radiation-%E3%81%8A%E6%AF%8D%E3%81%95%E3%82%93%EF%BC%81%E3%81%A9%E3%81%AE%E3%81%8F%E3%82%89%E3%81%84%E3%81%AE%E6%94%BE%E5%B0%84%E7%B7%9A%EF%BC%9F-2/
Not even world’s biggest nuclear-reactor-children-cancer study (KIKK) counts in INTERNAL radiation: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2007/12/17/german-kikk-study-higher-cancer-risc-next-to-atomic-power-plants-unofficial-belarussian-children-cancer-data/ They only measure EXTERNAL radiation. No known children cancer study is interested in INTERNAL emitters, although 70 – 90% of radiation comes from food today. THE WORLD HAS TO LEARN FROM BELARUS. If the focus is set only to external radiation, is seen only radiation in water and air, only milli sievert is discussed. Clean city, irradiated food. No children cancer study I know is interested in internal emitters. We can not afford this failure a 2nd time. This is not mere methodology. This is survival.
BELRAD INFO IN BELARUSIAN LANGFUAGE:
Cesium 137 mimics potassium and it did not exist before the atomic age. “cesium is easy to accumulate in the heart” / “50 Becquerel break your heart rhythm at 20 to 30 becquerel per kilogram of body weight” (CHILDREN!) / “if, during pregnancy, there is more than 200 becquerel per kilogram of cesium in the placenta it can lead to sudden death of the child” – according to Prof. Bandazhevsky from Belarus, now working in Ukraine and Japan: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/03/24/%E5%B0%82%E9%96%80%E5%AE%B6-%E3%83%A6%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%BB%E3%83%90%E3%83%B3%E3%83%80%E3%82%B8%E3%82%A7%E3%83%95%E3%82%B9%E3%82%AD%E3%83%BC-%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC-belarusian-chernobyl-and-c/
It’s health / death consequences are usually ignored by IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR, ICRP, BEIR, health ministeries and authorities, such as FDA. They even allow a certain (murderous) limit for food. In case of the European Union Countries: 63 milli Sievert per Year by Cesium 137 for infants: http://www.strahlentelex.de/RadiationRisk_EU_042011_engl.pdf
Cesium 137 is build in into these (all) body organs: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/children-cesium137.jpg
Food and their Mitosis is the reason, why children become ill and die, in irradiated AND “CLEAN” areas.
“In most cases effect of existing concentrations of radioactive caesium in the organism (10 – 20 Bq/kg) doesn’t cause its death, but influencing the energetic apparatus of cardiac cells significantly reduces their adaptable possibilities, and as a result functioning during stress situations and banal loads (physical and mental tension, hypoxia, disorder of temperature regime, alcohol drinking, infections and allergic diseases) becoming impossible.” http://chernobyl-today.org/images/stories/Bandajevski_2001_Radiocaesium_and_heart.pdf
BELRAD Whole Body Counter (Children and Cesium 137) summary: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/paper2%20V.Nesterenko.ppt PowerPoint File
“we can rightly consider the Cesium-137 in relatively small doses (20-30 Bq/kg); a breach of the regulatory processes in the body”: PAGE 2 – 3: http://chernobyl-today.org/images/stories/BANDAJEVSKI_UNSCEAR_-_REUTERS_Sept_22nd_2010_Eng_V2.pdf
BELARUS – 72 % of Chernobyl fallout – Belarusian Radiation Maps of the Country: http://www.rbic.by/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=256&Itemid=86
“Incorporation by of radionuclides (137Cs and 90Sr) with food (meat and grain) affects the offspring prenatal and postnatal development manifested by embryotoxic effects and abnormal bony system development” http://radionucleide.free.fr/Chapitre_1.htm
Scientists discover the obvious: “the human infant while nursing may attain higher body bur dens of radiocesium than would be the case for somewhat older children.”: http://radionucleide.free.fr/Stresseurs/419.pdf
Rough and inaccurate radiation maps of BELARUS (Am241, Cs137, Sr90, Pu239 & 240), in Curie per km²: http://chornobyl.in.ua/karta-belorussii.html
Charity rock concert for BELRAD Institute in Belarus (radiation measurements of food and Children / Chernobyl) on April 28th 2012: http://www.janun-hannover.de/ – 7 EUR Invitation – proceeds go to BELRAD. More Info: http://www.ostwestbruecke.de/ (Annual operating costs of a radiation measuring site is 1,238 € – according to Nesterenko.)
Here is Mr. Babenko of BELRAD, speaking in Japan: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vb5RXRuD-ts
Here are the Cesium 137 maps for Japan: http://orangeorange.jp/archives/18933 and Soil / Becquerel: http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/bqsoil-fukushimajapan.jpg
Vassily Nesterenko (liquidator and nuclear physicist) is the founder of Belrad Institute. And he says: that 70 – 90 % of RADIATION is accumulated with the consumption of FOOD. Mask can not protect against this main threat. This is the fact, and was the fact 10 years after the Explosions in Chernobyl. Although 130,000 people were evacuated from the most contaminated area. This is the reason why children are ill or become ill in “CLEAN” areas. Nesterenko and this son did this Study: http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov%20Chernobyl%20book.pdf He also says, that a 30-km evac zone is pointless. A 200 km evacuation zone makes more sense (Chernobyl). Babies with 2,6 Bq/body kg. Cesium 137: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/low-doses-are-high-doses_Ch.jpg Much more vulnerable than adults. Compare human fetus: In 1970 it was proven that human fetus is 500 times more vulnerable to radiation. And in 1978 this was released in the bulletin of atomic scientists: http://books.google.de/books?id=aAoAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=cancer+stewart+xray+1970+radiographs&source=bl&ots=UGZYt0TZGo&sig=ENE9wYZjjNs3Rh2XyptdZwP3Ucw&hl=de&ei=7545Tu6iF8aAOsLrvbMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Radiation-Inducible Chromosome Injuries:
Some Recent Evidence on Health Consequences — Major Consequences: http://ratical.org/radiation/CNR/RICI.html#Part1
WHY Fukushima and Chernobyl grow in Time and Space: “The yield of chromosome aberrations and, in lesser degree, embryonic lethality was associated with the radionuclide contamination of the monitoring areas in a dose-dependent manner. As a main feature of the long-term development of biological damage under low dose rate irradiation, permanently elevated levels of chromosome aberrations and an increasing frequency of embryonic lethality have developed over 22 animal generations. This contrasts with the assumption that the biological damage would gradually disappear since in the same period of time the whole-body absorbed dose rate decreased exponentially with a half-value time of about 2.5–3 years.” http://enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/lib/exe/fetch.php?media=fichiers%3Aetb-68.pdf
Pathologies of organs and systems of children are being registered when accumulation of Cs-137 in the body is higher than 50 Bq/kg. During pregnancy, when the level of Cs-137 in placenta is >200 Bq/kg, hormone disorders are being registered not only with mother but with foetus too. Particularly the level of testosterone increases with the higher amount of radionuclides. Mother experiences the increase of thyroid hormones amount and the amount of kortisol in blood. Changes of hormonal status in the mother-foetus system leads to the increase of the pregnancy length, complications of the birth act and after-birth development of the child. http://members.fortunecity.com/asasas25/Nester/nester1.htm
“Anencephaly, severe spina bifida cystica, cleft lips and/or palate, polydactyly, reduction limb defects leading to disability, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresias, Down’s syndrome and multiple
malformations are registered both in stillborns and in fetuses obtained through induced abortion after prenatal diagnostics. The results are presented in Table 2 for the 137Cs contaminated areas and for the control.” quote and scan from PAGE 2: http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr21/kr21pdf/Lazjuk.pdf
“It is important to study the effect of low-level irradiation at the population level /in an exposed human population the number of people whose blood cells do not give an adaptive response to subsequent exposures has increased / it was shown that 15 generations of cells irradiated with the doses 10 to 50 cGy (100 to 500 milli Gray) “remember” the irradiation and respond to external stimuli differently than the control.” PAGE 60 http://life-upgrade.com/DATA/chernobylebook.pdf
Juri Dubrova created children DNA fingerprints and compared their data with the DNA profile of British children who had lived on non irradiated region. The results of the study: the higher the soil contamination by cesium-137, the higher the mutation rate in a genomic fragment: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC378537/
Published in 1990 by Martin Gardner and Eve Roman, a study in which they examined the fathers of children with leukemia. They found: These fathers worked at Sellafield before “making” children and were exposed to radiation. The higher their dose was, the greater the risk was for their children to develop leukemia. Maximum: 5 mSv per year (Japan 20 mSv per year) repost: http://www.jstor.org/pss/29718787
Louise Parker in 1999 published a paper in which she examined primarily stillbirth in the “radiation workers” who work in a nuclear plant. She registered 9,208 births – among them were 130 stillbirths. The result of Parker’s study is appalling: When “producers” were irradiated 24 percent more stillbirths occured than of non-irradiated. (repost) http://www.lancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2899%2904138-0/abstract
Non-cancerous disease in various regions of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident radioactive material チェルノブイリ事故による放射性物質で汚染されたベラルーシの諸地域における非ガン性疾患 / ECCR http://www.crms-jpn.com/doc/%E3%83%81%E3%82%A7%E3%83%AB%E3%83%8E%E3%83%96%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AA%E4%BA%8B%E6%95%85%E3%81%AB%E3%82%88%E3%82%8B%E6%94%BE%E5%B0%84%E6%80%A7%E7%89%A9%E8%B3%AA%E3%81%A7%E6%B1%9A%E6%9F%93%E3%81%95%E3%82%8C%E3%81%9F%E3%83%99%E3%83%A9%E3%83%AB%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B7%E3%81%AE%E8%AB%B8%E5%9C%B0%E5%9F%9F%E3%81%AB%E3%81%8A%E3%81%91%E3%82%8B%E9%9D%9E%E3%82%AC%E3%83%B3%E6%80%A7%E7%96%BE%E6%82%A3%E3%80%80%EF%BC%B9%E3%83%BB%E3%83%90%E3%83%B3%E3%83%80%E3%82%B7%E3%82%A7%E3%83%95%E3%82%B9%E3%82%AD%E3%83%BC%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88.pdf
“Two years ago, Rosa Goncharova of the Institute of Genetics and Cytology in Minsk reported evidence that congenital abnormalities were turning up in the children of those irradiated by Chernobyl. She told a conference that since 1985, cases of cleft palate, Down’s syndrome and other deformities had increased by 83 per cent in the areas most heavily contaminated, 30 per cent in moderately contaminated areas and 24 per cent in “clean” areas.” http://web.archive.org/web/20060108123540/http://www.unesco.org/courier/2000_10/uk/planet.htm
Doses recived by Children are 3 – 10 times higher than by adults. This is a catastrophe because Children are in “mitsosis“, every damaged cell gives the damage to other cells, more rapidly. The latency is shorter in Children (1 – 4 years / adults: 20 – 25 years). By Vassily Nesterenko Atomic phsyicist and liquidator of Chernobyl and founder of BELRAD Institute:
“for 15 years new children were born who, thanks to God, did not experience the first radioactive shock. For 15 years, they have eaten contaminated food. Children receive the highest doses, because the dose coefficients, in a 3 year old child, are 5 times higher than in adults. Contaminate food spreads like locusts In the whole Republic. It is not surprising to find in Minsk, children with a dose load of 700-900 Bq/kg. I want to draw your attention on the research of Prof. Bandazhevsky. We worked with him. He came to the conclusion that 50 Bq/kg bodyweight in children, represent a threshold where pathologies appear in vital organs like kidneys, liver, heart and others. I want to say that today the health of children is such that if we do not take urgent measures, I cannot see good prospects for our children.”
Nesterenko: “We measure the whole population, then we isolate the critical group. We isolate the 10-15 most contaminated individuals. Generally 8 are children, also tractor drivers and forest workers, and sometimes retired persons who gather great quantities of berries and mushroom in forests. This is what our measurements show. We have 110.000 results. We always thought that children with a high metabolism should not concentrate much. But, I repeat, we find the highest concentrations in the children.”
“when we try to eliminate the high sickness rate by an increased number of clinics – we’ll never succeed. Unfortunately, we are losing time for study because to do something it is necessary to understand the reasons and consequences of the sickness rather than regularly declare slogans or launch some campaigns” http://spring96.org/en/news/13547
Irradiated Fukushima or Chernobyl Soil with 555,000 Becquerel per m² (15 Curie per km²) and more irradiates the people living there with additional 50 to 60 milli Sievert per year (annual dose)! NOT included: Irradiation by food (Source number One).
The ICRP lowered the standard dose for citizens in 1991 from 5 mSv/annual to 1 mSv/annual. For workers of the nuclear industry they lowered it from 50 mSv/annual to 20 mSv/annual. In 2011 the japanese government increased it by 2000 PERCENT into: 20 mSv/annual. AN INFANT or UNBORN is “allowed” to get as much radiation per YEAR as a worker in a nuclear power plant! This is “only” external radiation. http://hps.org/documents/publicdose03.pdf / https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2012/02/17/japanese-infants-as-much-radiation-as-nuclear-power-plant-employees/
presentation of Rosa Goncharova: Genomic Instability After Chernobyl, Prognosis for the Coming Generations: http://vivretchernobyl.wordpress.com/2008/06/05/presentation-of-rosa-goncharova-genomic-instability-after-chernobyl-prognosis-for-the-coming-generations/
Our tolerance level to radiation is lowered by Chernobyl and Fukushima: it can be stated that hereditary apparatus of somatic and germ cells of succeeding animal generations (12-22) have higher sensitivity to radiation in comparison with previous ones (1-10) that lived before – and took much higher radiation loads. In other words, there was no genetic adaptation to the mutagenic effect of low level irradiation for the whole investigation period in wild populations of bank vole. http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr21/kr21pdf/Goncharova.pdf
Low Radiation: The Petkau Effect – updated Aug 1st 2011: https://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/03/14/low-radiation-the-petkau-effect/
Lessons from Belarus to Japan: 555 kBq per m² (15 Curie per km²) to 1,480 kBq per m² (40 Curie per km²) cause 50 – 60 milli Sievert per year for the people living there – according to Belaraus National Report 1995 [the year when Belarus stopped aid for irradiated areas with 1 – 5 Curie km² (37 kBq per m² – 185 kBq per m²)]. Exclusion Zones start at 18,500 kBq (18,500,000!!!) per m² of Cs-137, 455 kBq per m² of Sr-90 and 150 kBq per m² of Pu-239. Very very high tolerance levels, if we take into account, that Bandashevsy proved, that 20 Bq – 50 Bq of Cs-137 per Kg of the body (not kilo Bq! normal Bq!) are already letal for children! 1995: the level of air contamination exceeded by 10 and more times the pre-accident data even for “clean” places, like Minsk.
The river sediments of Dneeper, Sozh and Pripjat, Neman, Zapadnay and Divina increased Cs-137 by 80%. This is only official state data. It reached also backwaters: The Sr-90 activity varies from 2,2 – 66,0 up to 407 – 4,215 Bq/Kg). Alpha-radionuclides density in riverbed sediments is higher than in river waters: Pu238 from 0,005 – 9,10 Bg/Kg; Pu-239-240 from 0,13 – 28,13 Bq/Kg; Am-241 from 0,07 – 16,2 Bq/Kg. In the 90ies the levels fro Cs-137 and Sr-90 exceed pre-accidental levels in ground water 20 – 30 times and in underground waters 10 times and more. Chernobyl turned the soil into a collector where accumulation and prolonged retention of long-living radionculides occur.
Today contaminated soil functions as the main source, which delivers various components of radionuclides into the biosphere. At at distance of 150 – 200 km to Chernobyl: Gomel in Belarus: 2,271 kBq/m² (61 Curie per km²) and Mogilev (146 Curie per km²) can be found. In Bragin (Gomel) Cs-137 contamination is 174 kBq per m² up to 2,523 kBq per m². Radionuclides are distributed into forest photosynthesis: this is the growth line for Cs-137: wood < branches < needles < forest litter. For the living soil cover the line is as follows: herbaceous plants < lichens < mosses. The maximum is in the root system and ground vegetative part of plants, and considerably lower in generating organs. Accumulation degree for Sr-90 in meadow plants is twice as large as compared to Cs-137. The permissible levels for mushrooms is 7,4 kBq per m² for mushrooms. Terretories are called clean if contamination density is lower than 37 kBq per m². For berries of the red worthle berries family varies from 37 to 185 kBq per m². Migration processes of marketable animals and birds cause high specific activity of game registered even on relatively clean terretories.
The presence of radioactive isotopes in practically all components of the natural and natural-techno-genic ecosystems with density much higher than before explains their involvement in the geo-chemical and biological cycles of migration. This stuation causes different ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes people’s health.
We don’t get more data today, it is covered up by the state. So we go back into the 90ies: Thyroid illnesses morbidity of the children of Gomel area in 1994 (indices per 100,000 children: Total in Belarus 1086,20 – Total in Gomel area: 3594,30 – Contaminated area (> 555 kBq per m² / > 15 Curie per km²): 16159,70. Thyroid cancer morbidity of the children of Gomel area in 1994 (i.p. 100,000 children): Total in Belarus: 3,20 – Total in Gomel area: 12,00 – Contaminated area (> 555 kBq per m² / > 15 Curie per km²): 77,50. Tumour morbidity of the children in Gomel area in 1994 (i.p. 100,000 chidren): Total in Belarus: 101,10 – Total in Gomel area: 154,90 – Contaminated area (> 555 kBq per m² / > 15 Curie per km²): 245,40. Malignant tumour morbidity of the Children of Gomel area in 1994: Total in Belarus: 13,80 – Total in Gomel area: 27,10 – Contaminated area (> 555 kBq per m² / > 15 Curie per km²): 103,30.
Impact on human health in Belarus: http://tschernobyl-initiative.welcomes-you.com/dokumente/belarus/pdf/band3_s8_23.pdf
Official radiation maps of Belarus (too low): http://www.rbic.by/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=256&Itemid=86
How Belarus makes Chernobyl zones attractive, which are irradiated with 40 Curie per km² (1,480,000 Becquerel per m² – gives 50 – 60 mSv/year only by living there): http://www.kostukovichi.mogilev-region.by/en/news/region
BELRAD (THE INSTITUTE OF RADIATION, BELARUS)
“The Institute of Radiation Safety in Belarus is known as BELRAD (or Institute
BELRAD). The Institute was founded by the eminent nuclear physicist Dr Vasily
Nesterenko in 1990 and acts as an independent non state organization. The
Institute conducts scientific research and development projects to measure the
radiation in food and humans, along with measurements of contamination in soil
The goal of the Institute BELRAD is the radiation monitoring of the inhabitants of
Chernobyl zone and their food. The Institute also develops guidelines on
radiation safety for the protection of the population who live in the contaminated
zones. BELRAD also conducts ongoing scientific research.
Radiation monitoring of the Chernobyl zones
The creation local networks for controlling and limiting the distribution of
Educating teachers and schools on the dangers of consuming irradiated food
Radiation monitoring of food. There are now 83 local networks in operation
and these networks or centres assist in monitoring food. The BELRAD databank
includes over 320,000 results relating to their radiation control and monitoring of
food in the worst affected regions of Belarus.”
Speak out the truth, do the self-evident!
In the name of the Children.