THE PETKAU EFFECT: http://www.nuclearreader.info/chapter3.html
Discovered by Abraham Petkau, 1972, Whitshell at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (web).
His study: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/v71-196
that 26 RAD (0,0026) per Minute (fast radiation rate) need a total dose of 3500 RAD (35 gray) to harm a cell membrane. Took 134 minutes.
with 0,001 RAD per Minute (slow dose 0,00001 gray) only 0,7 RAD (0,007 gray) are needed to harm a cell membrane. Took 700 minutes.
Smaller doses are needed to do harm.
The Mechanism behind it:
The production of free radicals of Oxygen (O² with a negative electric charge) caused by ionising effect of the radiation.
The free radicals caused by the slow dose (0,001) are sparsely distributed radicals do have a higher chance to reach the cell membranes.
The free radicals of the fast radiation rate (26) are tight together and so they react faster with each other.
The low electric charge of the cell membranes attract the free radicals in the early state of the reaction (minor total dose).
RADIATION > FREE RADICAL > CELL DAMAGE > TISSUE DAMAGE > DISEASE http://www.nuclearreader.info/chapter4.html
If the harmed cells are monocytes this will cause:
Anemia, because the monocytes recycle 37 – 40 % of the iron of dying red blood cells.
Weakened immune system in the cells, because the monocytes generate the substance which activates the immune system of the lymphocytes.
This is the so called “Bura Bura” – of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors.
THIS IS IGNORED BY THE IAEA AND THE WHO
They only accept linear dose-effects, but the effect is bimodal.
Role of superoxide dismutase in modification of radiation injury http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2149491/
Routine radioactive emissions are dangerous because they are the main source of low-level radiation. Strong radiation comes from large accidents. Petkau discovered that the response is logarithmic to radiation, that means, concave downward. So the risk is higher at low doses of radiation than larger ones.
The damage to the immune system due to low-level radiation can be controlled to some extent by measures that strengthen the immune system: antioxidant, vitamin C, vitamin E.
The biochemical mechanisms by which the immune system is damaged, are different from the damage to the DNA caused by high radiation doses.
If you have low-level radiation in addition to other mechanisms, the formation of free radicals by antioxidants such as vitamin C or E can be lifted.
The only way to really deal with the problem of low-level radiation, is, as soon as possible to switch off any atomic reactor .
The indirect chemical damage to cell membranes in the low dose range is much more important than the direct effect of radiation on the nucleus with its genetic material. In the nucleus there appears to be much stronger repair mechanisms than in the cell membranes. This is consistent with the purposes of evolution: Increasingly higher development of life. First and foremost, namely the genes in the nucleus had greatly developed by repair mechanisms to be protected. Only then could the nature of the gene pool protect itself against the highly damaging properties of natural radiation, and thus maintain the relative stability of species over millions of years.
> Petkau A. Effects of 22 Na + on phospholipid membrane injury to irradiated erythrocytes. Radiation Research 1968, 34:335-346.
>Sternglass EJ. Implication of dose-rate dependent cell-membrane damage for the biological effets of medical and environmental radiation. Proceedings of the symposium on population exposures, Knoxville TN, October 21-23, 1974. (CONF-741 018)
The BIMODAL effect of low radiation on health – proven by Burlakova 1996, ignored by science and IAEA, today’s science ONLY looks for LINEAR dose effects. They use the model of HIGH radiation (acute syndrome) on LOW radiation effects (cancer, diseases, mutation – …) – result: ALL radiation victims are and latency in general ignored! Please share: http://www.life-upgrade.com/DATA/BurlakovaChernobyl-Belarus.pdf
Page 2: “Table 1 Incidence of 12 classes of disease among liquidators per 100 thousand people” – shows massive increase of diseases. Page 6 “relation between effects at low-intensive dosage and dose rate” and Page 11 “the PRESENCE of linear or linear-quadratic dependency IS NOT obligatory for the cases of diseases and deaths from malignant neoplasm at low doses”: http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr21/kr21pdf/Burlakova.pdf
“Presently the international organizations (WHO, IAEA) recognize as the main cause of increase of thyroid cancer in liquidators and children population after the accident their irradiation with radioactive iodine, I-131. The rest of diseases, they suppose, are provoked by psycho-emotional reactions. ” http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr21/kr21pdf/Burlakova.pdf The bimodal dependence of effects on dose was
revealed for all studied parameters. Namely, effects increased at low doses, reached maximum (for low doses), then decreased (in some cases the effect sign reversed) and thereafter increased with the increase of
Teratological effects and mutations through radiation – ignored by IAEA, OECD, ICRP, UNSCEAR, SCIENCE – proven by Étienne Wolff in the 1930ies: http://books.google.com/books/about/Th%C3%A8ses_pr%C3%A9sent%C3%A9es_%C3%A0_la_Facult%C3%A9_des.html?id=MQvwcQAACAAJ and: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,862623,00.html and: http://www.ijdb.ehu.es/web/paper.php?doi=041944cg&a=f
But in contrast to the gene pool, individual members of populations (plants, animals, people) for the evolution are not so important to the contrary, her constant death and her replacement by reproduction is an important evolutionary process. The repair mechanisms in the cell membranes were needed, but weren’t so important, because you only caused diseases, but no genetic defects. And if one member of a population has fulfilled its evolutionary role of reproduction, sit is no longer needed, so a life extension beyond the reproductive age is also not absolutely necessary. This is for the survival of animals and plant species are not necessarily problematic, however, for human society. Each individual hopes to a long and healthy life, far beyond reproduction age. In addition, an adaptation to environmental toxic substances in humans is not possbile, because of the generational change phaes which are very long. But we add more radiation by atomic energy with it’s low radiation emission, accidents, catastrophes – which are peeks.
RADIATION > FREE RADICAL > CELL DAMAGE > TISSUE DAMAGE > DISEASE http://www.nuclearreader.info/chapter4.html
Petkau Effect in living Systems:
> If Oxygen in cells is replaced by nitrogen, the dose must be many times increased to destroy of the membranes. Thus, the damaging role of oxygen is demonstrated (free radicals: O negative): http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/m74-049
> Even pro nuclear BEIR III 1980 report shows: The protection of the membrane is possible by enzymes and substances. These bind free radicals. This is indirect evidence for the oxidation of the membranes in living Systems: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/201/4359/875.short
> The lower the concentration of strontium-90 in rat bone, the greater the damage to the bone marrow: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5748432 “the dose rates are too low to reduce the ‘requisite’ repair levels” PAGE 4 http://www.solarsplendor.com/Nuclear%20Research/Biological%20low-dose%20radiation%20effects.pdf
> human blood cells of radiologists and X-ray technicians (Universtity of California): For rubidium cell membranes were permeable – So, more damage, than regular staff. The largest increase of the damage was at the lowest total doses. Percentage: A hundred times larger. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4683533
> With a high dose rate of 1900 rad (19 Gray) per minute – with nuclear explosions – is the total dose of 2000 Rad (20 Gray) needed to damage cell membranes of blood: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3572559?uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101160429691
> Rats inhaled plutonium dust – Doubling dose for cancer was only 180 mrad (1.8 milli Gray). According to conservative ICRP and IAEA guidelines, it would have amounted to 395 rad – 3.95 Gray! But it was only 1,8 milli Gray! ICRP’s estimates has been miscalculated to the 190-fold! http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4358363
> Hamsters: Larger effect of small doses: Polonium 210 was applied to their lungs: The largest increase of cancer cases arose at the lowest total radiation dose (see Petkau, Chelack, Stokke, Scott Sanders – all above): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/639040
> Hamsters: 15 times more lung cancer by Polonium 210 in samll units over 15 weeks, than a TOTAL dose of the same amount at once: Mac Candy R.B. et al “Exp. Lung Cancer” Springer Verlag, 1974, p. 485 (http://books.google.de/books?id=kkxzmBwKt78C&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=Mac+Candy+R.B.+et+al+%22Exp.+Lung+Cancer%22+Springer+Verlag,+1974&source=bl&ots=szKH-CV3in&sig=kaT6Wsm9k2-RlwSWYJVdEscr_UU&hl=de#v=onepage&q=Mac%20Candy%20R.B.%20et%20al%20%22Exp.%20Lung%20Cancer%22%20Springer%20Verlag%2C%201974&f=false)
> BEIR III admits Petkau Effect: If gamma radiation comes from EXTERNAL, it starts protective action of the enzyme. When irradiated from the INSIDE with beta radiation of tritium, there is no protective effect: page 469 – 469 http://iopscience.iop.org/0260-2814/1/2/002/
> Hanford USA: Extremely elevated cancer incidence in staff despite lower radiation exposure: At that time, the 20-fold reduction of the dose limit was requested: By all means the officials have tried to refute the work. It was said the amounts of radiation had been measured incorrectly. It is nevertheless argued that such employees are monitored precisely! http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/422389
> Portsmouth dockyard workers who repair nuclear submarines: 5.6 times higher rate of leukemia in 1978: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2878%2990741-9/abstract
> different areas in New York State , 1956: Increased natural radioactivity of the soil by uranium, thorium. Increased mortality of newborns and developmental defects. 20 to 40 percent higher. One percent per mrad (0.00001 Gray): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1372765/?tool=pmcentrez
> Close relationship between stillbirths with visible deformities and the intensity of cosmic radiation. 1960: 1.8 malformations per 1000 births at the equator. About 50 degrees north latitude: 5 malformations per 1000 births. Explainable by Petkau Effect. With the effects of radiation on the nucleus (hereditary), the greatly increased number of stillbirths would have been unable to explain: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13844093
> In many cases, increased chromosomal abnormalities in the blood of people living on thorium-containing Monozite sandy soil. Residents and workers were examined. Ten-fold increase of lead 212 in the air (beta rays) increased chromosomal defects from 0.9 to 2 percent. Another ten-fold increase in lead 212 concentration increased defects by 0.57 percent. Means: A larger effect of smaller doses: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1762904/
> 1984, New Scientist: Internal studies of the DOE Department of Energy: Workers of twelve different nuclear plants. Nine of the studies found up to 50% higher leukemia rates, above average: lung cancer, lymphoma, brain cancer, malignant tumors of the digestive organs. Common diseases of the respiratory system were more frequent. 2,529 workers were examined in plants of the DOE. All workers had received more than 50 mSv per year. The cancer rate was three times higher: http://books.google.de/books?id=YIAzHckpZswC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false
war is going on.
It was made publicly known in 1953 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower declared war upon every citizen and human being with “The Peaceful Atom”. It was then further developed in 1954 with the first hydrogen bomb testing which changed the most important international program for radiation protection and compensation: THE ALARA PRINCIPLE: http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/03/21/iaea-and-icrp-the-alara-principle/, the h bomb testing is the successor to the Hiroshima / Nagasaki testing (!). The BASE for ALL RADIATION LIMITS is the T65D Study (Tentative Dose Estimate compiled in 1965): http://www.rerf.or.jp/glossary_e/t65d.htm For validation of this study the US even did an atomic test in Nevada: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/212/4497/900.extract
In 1959 the WHO was gagged by the WHA 12-40 contract with the IAEA: http://www.independentwho.info/Documents/M_Fernex/ChernobylCatastrophe_Fernex_EN.pdf Doctors of the UN are not allowed to accept or release studies about radiation health issues without the validation of the atomic industry. Then, Chernobyl and Fukushima were used to increase background radiation – in order to accelerate and alter evolution. Please keep in mind, that it was natural radiation (not man made) that caused EVOLUTION. We now are in the progress of a new evolution – it’s called ATOMIC DARWINISM: http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/07/15/less-girls-are-born-because-of-nuclear-power-global-population-growth-control/ Examples: The ICRP refers to any unusual bleeding disorders found in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just as misdiagnosis: http://books.google.de/books?id=lgYAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=radiation+standards+robert+alvarez&source=bl&ots=Tmi95_Q6DT&sig=LQ7coEWdFM6NMtzrfjw60nJEoWQ&hl=de&ei=o-o2TqOkCoPMswaIr4m6Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=radiation%20standards%20robert%20alvarez&f=false . A few months after Three Mile Island a study was made public – which showed a 2,5 times increase in children leukemia: http://books.google.de/books?id=Clrz_0sJZrQC&pg=PA296&lpg=PA296&dq=joseph+lyon+new+england+journal+of+medicine&source=bl&ots=BddTdpYt7g&sig=GsBQGEGS8u2KHHQQSL7_CsBe6DM&hl=de&ei=Cu02TuCUGYXxsgaXuaC5Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=joseph%20lyon%20new%20england%20journal%20of%20medicine&f=false But the US health office under Dr. Arnold Müller ignored this. The predecessor of Müller was Prof. Leod: http://atomichistory.wordpress.com/2009/09/13/dr-gordon-macleod-on-tmi/ He agreed to the study the Josep Lyon and was FIRED.
Atomic Industry knows no freedom of speech, underimes law and democracy. Krypton 85 is emitted from nuclear power plants and bruises the skin on more than 2 millimeters, which could be the cause for skin cancer. It also seems that low radiation kills us, by weakening of our immune system, thus we become more vulnerable to simple diseases. For example, accumulation of allergies.. large parts of the population can be so in 10 years or more, simply shut down. Tests with dogs in 1977 have proven, that small doses cause leukemia: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2032130/ BEIR / ICRP talk this down and ignore it! We have war against us, against everyone, and soon against Iran: http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/06/23/us-afghan-withdrawal-because-of-upcoming-nuclear-attack-on-iran/ ladies and gentlemen, Fukushima is the last warning to mankind. And what happened to Bring Home Dragon: http://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=10150246584176556&id=656046555 is a shame and shows, that atomic power can not tolerate one gram of truth.
Every atomic power country willf face dictatorship: http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/07/24/japan-goes-the-same-way-as-belarus-dictatorship-a-deep-insight/ And don’t forget what the industry and the UN are planning: http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2011/05/21/the-nuclear-priesthood-a-successor-to-the-iaea/ A dark future, an new bible: http://bbk.academia.edu/DennisDuncan/Talks/46203/Translating_for_10_000_Years_Thomas_Sebeok_The_Bible_and_the_Atomic_Priesthood
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